Feeding the dog

The dog is a predator, carnivore creature by its nature.

Ancient ancestors of dogs ate slaughtered animals, the meat was their main diet. If we will observe the wolves, the closest relatives of our pets, we will see a curious fact. When they kill the elk or deer, wolves primarily eat the peritoneum, and the meat is left for later. There are not fully digested herbs and grasses inside the peritoneum, in stomach and intestines. Wolves get the vital substances from such prepared mixture. These are proteins, carbohydrates, fat.

Certainly, in the course of evolution and domestication, dogs have learned to eat any food together with their masters. But the needs of the dog's body remained the same.

Your Jack needs proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and, of course, plenty of fresh water.
Remember the ancient truth: "You are what you eat"?

This fully regards to your pet. The better his food, so in the best shape he is.
Each element play a role, and the lack or excess of some elements can lead to an imbalance in the body of a dog. Your Jack does not need a variety of dishes, like a man. He can’t enjoy the food because of its taste, because the taste of the dog is much weaker than that of humans. Treat your Jack anything. In the first place, he sniffs the treat, and on the basis of olfactory sensations will take it or not. In other words, the dog determines tasty food or not, by the smell. If she liked the smell, and then the food is tasty.

So what to give to Jack, you may ask? There is so much debate about the pros and cons, as natural products and finished feed. We will not give advice, what kind of nursing is preferred. We will talk about the different options. And you can pick and choose some diet according to your own capabilities and preferences of your Jack.

Let’s take a look at the main elements of the diet of Jack.

Water

The body of the dog is 60% consists of water. It is known that without food the dog can live for several weeks, and without water dog lives about 3 days maximum. If the organism of a dog loses only 10% of water in relation to its own weight, it will lead to inevitable death. The dog can painlessly lose weight from lack of food, at a much greater value. Thus, water is the main component of the dog food. Jack is a high-energy dog and he easily loses fluid during the hunt, games, active exercise, especially in the hot season. Therefore, it is important to be sure there is access to fresh water to Jack. When you're taking your dog for a long time in the car, or a long walk in the countryside, where there is no water, take water with you. 

Proteins

Proteins are the basis for building bone, muscle, nerve and other tissues of the body of a dog. The main sources of protein are meat, fish, eggs, dairy products. Sufficient amount of protein foods is especially important in the period of growing, during pregnancy and breastfeeding puppies, also you should increase the protein content of the diet  for energetic because diet with insufficient energy value may lead to burning and depletion of the body's own proteins. 

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are an important energy source for the body of a dog. The diet should include carbohydrates at least 50% of the diet. The main sources of carbohydrates are in plants. These are cereal, rice, wheat, buckwheat, corn, soybeans, beans. 

Cellulose

Cellulose or otherwise dietary fiber must be present in the diet of the dog. Fiber can be called "orderly of digestive tract." It regulates the entire digestive system of the organism, particularly intestinal peristalsis. On the other hand, an overabundance of fiber in the diet may cause disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Sources of fiber are any vegetables, fruits and herbs. However, you should avoid onions, garlic, turnip.

Fats

Fats are a concentrated source of energy for dogs. However, foods with high fat content can lead to obesity of the dog. This does not apply to young Jack, because they are very energetic dogs, mobile, and the presence of fat is needed in their diet. However, the amount of fat in the diet should be limited in old age. Inter alia, fats are important for the health of hair and the skin. Fats can be both animal and vegetable origin. 

Minerals

Minerals are the main components the body of the dog build on especially the skeleton and teeth. They maintain proper function of the nervous system, cardiovascular system, electrolyte balance, metabolic processes. 

They are divided into two groups: 

Major mineral elements 

  • Calcium and phosphorus are needed to build the skeleton. Diseases of locomotive system arise with a lack of these elements.
  • Potassium and sodium are responsible for the electrolyte balance in the body. Potassium deficiency leads to heart and renal failure. In addition, they cause developmental delay and delay in the formation of the visual system.
  • Sodium is also responsible for the water balance of the body's cells. Excess sodium in the body can lead to the development of hypertension and renal failure.
  • Magnesium is involved in the construction of the skeleton, nervous system and the excitable tissues of the body of the dog. Its deficiency causes muscle weakness and sometimes convulsions.

Trace elements

  • Iron is an essential element for the formation of red blood cells and it is responsible for cell respiration and transport of oxygen in blood. Iron deficiency is associated with the occurrence of anemia, weakness, fatigue of the dog.
  • Zinc is responsible for the condition of the coat and skin, functioning of enzyme systems, protein synthesis. Its deficiency leads to stunted growth, anorexia, infertility, damage to the integrity of the skin. 
  • Copper is necessary for the production of hemoglobin, the pigment of the hair and skin, for bone formation. Copper deficiency may cause bone disease and anemia.
  • Selenium combines with vitamin E protects cells from damage. 
  • Iodine involved in the synthesis of hormones of endocrine system. 

The sources of these minerals may be either food (meat, fish, bone meal, sea salt, yeast), or chemical compounds, such as zinc salts, manganese salts, phosphates, and so forth.

Vitamins

As we know from our own, human, experience, vitamins are essential to any organism. The lack or deficiency of any vitamin can cause serious diseases. All vitamins found in foods or in the form of tablets produced by specialized companies, which are added to the basic diet of the dog. List necessary vitamins for the dog's body is composed of 12 items (A, D, E, K, B1, B2, B6, B12, B4, nicotinic acid, etc.,). These vitamins, along with minerals, responsible for vision, growth, metabolism, skin integrity, proper functioning of various body systems. For example, B vitamins help convert food into energy. Lack of vitamin, can cause pathology in muscle tissue; the lack of vitamin A causes problems with eyes, including inflammation of the conjunctiva, the problems with wound healing; the lack of vitamin D causes rickets.
However, an overabundance of vitamins is also dangerous for Jack’s health. Vitamin overabundance is very common due to the increased fashion "to feed the dog more." People often add to the diet of their pet variety of vitamins. But the effects can be vitamin B1 leads to tremor of limbs, vitamins A and D in large quantities are toxic and induce anorexia, polyuria, hyperphosphatemia.

Certainly give your Jack vitamins which he needs, but the quantity only depends on the period of his life, the time of year, etc. For example, during molting for its acceleration, during pregnancy, lactation, aging, etc.
In any case, do not set themselves the vitamins for your pet, consult your veterinarian!


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